ROCK DOC - Ag engineering saving labor - and lives - in the orchard

Advertisement

It's one thing to pick a bag of apples from an old tree by the side of a gravel road. It's quite another to spend all day in an orchard trying to earn a living climbing ladders and harvesting box after box of fruit.

All agricultural work is both demanding and dangerous, and working in orchards is one of the most difficult tasks in modern agriculture. Indeed, it's such hard work that a lot of Americans simply can't or won't do it, which leads to labor shortages and immigration issues we continue to fail to come to terms with.

It's interesting to note we'd never considering harvesting grain fields by hand. I live in a small town surrounded by fields of wheat. At the end of the summer, large and complex machines reap the grain in the field, then thresh it, and finally winnow it. The three-step process is automatic as the harvester rumbles across the wheat field.

Why not use machines to harvest fruit orchards? We could free people from the back-breaking tedium of hand picking fruit, training them instead to run machines that could do the work more quickly and safely. Lower-priced produce could then benefit us all.

The good news is that agricultural engineers are making real progress toward exactly that goal. In the process, they've found it useful to change trees themselves. Here's the story.

Machines operate most easily in unchanging conditions. Lawn mowers work because grass in a lawn makes up a pretty uniform surface. Mowers can't cope with truly major bumps or depressions.

One challenge for creating machines that could harvest an orchard is that traditionally fruit trees have all been quite different. They are "bumpy," you might say, with this particular tree pruned years ago in one way, while that tree over there has a different shape.

So the first step in moving toward the mechanization of orchards has been creating trees that are much more similar to one another. Along the way it's also been useful to make the trees shorter. Tthere's no need to have a 22-foot tall apple tree, with its fruit way up off the ground, when a much shorter tree will do.

Another step forward hinged on what I think is a truly clever idea. Instead of letting the trees grow in their usual way, ag engineers had them pruned to keep them growing in just two-dimensions. You could say these trees make thin apple "hedges."

With that innovation, the next step is to design mechanical pickers that can move along the thin rows of short trees, reaching out to pick the fruit.

One idea is to use camera sensors to determine where a piece of fruit is, and then power a robotic-arm that can pick it individually. Before you think that's too fanciful to be true, remember your car was welded together by robotic arms.

Qin Zhang, Ph.D., of Washington State University works on agricultural automation issues including the goal of mechanically harvesting fruit trees.

"People all over the word are putting great effort into developing mechanical fruit harvesters. I will not be surprised if we see mechanically harvested apples in the stores in ten years," he said to me recently.

Although mechanizing agriculture always entails periods of economic adjustment for all concerned, I've got to wish Dr. Zhang the best.

The equivalent of a combine harvester for fruit would be a labor-saving device that could help a lot of people in several ways, both in the field and in the grocery store.

E. Kirsten Peters, Ph.D., is a rural Northwest native trained as a geologist. Her column is a service Washington State University. Follow her at rockdoc.wsu.edu .

Comments

Use the comment form below to begin a discussion about this content.

Sign in to comment

Click here to sign in